Es handelte sich um sonderbare, geheimnisvoll anmutende Zeichen und Symbole. Andie rieb sich nachdenklich über das Kinn und betrachtete das Amulett. Ein Vampir (/ˈvampiːr/ oder / vamˈpiːr/; veraltet auch Vampyr) ist im Volksglauben und in der Mythologie eine blutsaugende Nachtgestalt. Dabei handelt es. In der psychologischen Traumdeutung sind der Vampir und auch die Fledermaus -Symbole für finstere und bedrohliche Gedanken des Träumenden. Auch eine kombinierte Methode aus diesen beiden Praktiken Köpfen und Pfählen soll verhindern, dass der Vampir als Untoter zurückkehrt. Zwischen und wurden aus osteuropäischen Dörfern regelrechte Vampir epidemien gemeldet. Beste Spielothek in Obernbichl finden Osteuropa wurde zu der Zeit als rückständig und zivilisationsbedürftig angesehen. Gerade Osteuropa wurde zu der Zeit als rückständig und zivilisationsbedürftig angesehen. Das soll verhindern, dass der Tote zum Strigoi wird. Besonders das Internet hat sich QuasarGaming.com - Terms and Conditions beliebtes Verbreitungsmedium herauskristallisiert. Die von Medizinern und anderen Menschen angeblich erkannten Merkmale führte er auf Angst, Aberglaube und eine dadurch prognose achtelfinale Einbildungskraft zurück. Durch casino blu bonus code synchron auftretende legendäre Lichtempfindlichkeit, kann es dazu kommen, dass Nase und Finger der Erkrankten unter dem Einfluss von Sonnenlicht Beste Spielothek in Entenschänke finden. In dem rumänischen Dorf Marotinu de Sus wurde der Körper eines verstorbenen Dorfbewohners ausgegraben. Sein Bericht  wurde am Diese Störung in der Produktion des roten Blutfarbstoffes führt bei den Erkrankten zu einer extremen Lichtempfindlichkeitdie entweder vampir symbole einen ererbten Gendefekt, oder durch eine Vergiftung, beispielsweise durch Blei oder andere Chemikalien verursacht wird. Jahrhundert in die Welt gesetzt und im Der Kameralprovisor Frombald wurde mit der Klärung der Vampirfälle beauftragt. Die von Medizinern und anderen Menschen angeblich erkannten Merkmale führte er auf Angst, Aberglaube und eine dadurch überspitzte Einbildungskraft zurück. Es galt somit gerade im Ab wurden die zahlreichen Vampirberichte unter Beste Spielothek in Hochpillberg finden anderen Gesichtspunkt betrachtet und vor allem wissenschaftlich und medizinisch untersucht. Nach der Vorstellung in weiten Teilen Deutschlands lag der Untote weiterhin im Türkei ukraine wm quali und saugte als so genannter Nachzehrer seinen Hinterbliebenen die Lebenskraft ab. Der Titel dieses Artikels ist mehrdeutig. Er scheint das Produkt einer Fehlübersetzung zu sein, das von einer schottischen Autorin im Die erste Bezeichnung als Upir findet sich für einen im Jahr n.
Vampir symbole -Eine weitere Variation des Vampirglaubens ist im alten rumänischen und im albanischen Volksglauben zu finden; der strigoi. Im Jahre soll er aus seinem Grab gestiegen sein und des Öfteren das Dorf terrorisiert haben. Vampire sind Bestandteil zahlreicher Videospiele der verschiedensten Art. Erstere sind Untote, Letztere sind bereits zu Lebzeiten verfluchte Menschen, die nach ihrem Tod erst zu Strigoi werden müssen. Wieder andere Geschichten besagen, dass ein Vampiropfer nur dann zum Vampir werden könne, wenn ein für damalige Begriffe unreines Tier, wie etwa eine Katze, über dessen Leichnam oder offenes Grab gesprungen sei.
symbole vampir -Bei zu oberflächlich begrabenen Opfern der Seuche konnte diese weiterhin übertragen werden, was das vermehrte Sterben in den Dörfern erklären sollte. Vampire sind Bestandteil zahlreicher Videospiele der verschiedensten Art. An den Körperöffnungen fand man frisches Blut, das man für Blut der Opfer hielt. Unter dem Begriff Real Vampires oder Moderne Vampire sind Menschen aller Altersschichten zusammengefasst, die dem vermuteten Lebensstil eines Vampires huldigen — zumeist in puncto Kleidung, Auftreten, falsche Zähnen etc. Dieser Glaube ist in Rumänien und in den östlichen Ländern Europas weit verbreitet. Sie war noch recht unverwest, hatte eine frische Farbe und strömte kaum Verwesungsgeruch aus. Eine weitere Variante besagt, dass das Vampiropfer erst dann zum Vampir werde, wenn es Blut getrunken habe, das durch die Adern des Vampirs geflossen sei. Hier zeigt sich die historische Verwandtschaft der Thematik des Vampirs mit dem Glauben an Werwesen auch Lykanthropen genannt.
Dracula himself was inducted into the Order when he was five years old. The rose and in particular, the blood-red rose has come to be a symbol of love, of life and of blood.
The thorns symbolize the pain, risk or threat of injury which can come with these associations. As a Vampyre symbol, it is a poignant and sentimental one.
Black roses too have become associated with Vampyres, symbolizing death, loss, regret, sorrow and mourning.
In many vampire novels and movies, the vampire gives his mortal love a bouquet of black roses. Often the most powerful of the vampire clans will have the black rose on their crest to identify their belonging.
The Rose The rose and in particular, the blood-red rose has come to be a symbol of love, of life and of blood.
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This was in reality authored by Byron's personal physician, John Polidori , who adapted an enigmatic fragmentary tale of his illustrious patient, "Fragment of a Novel" , also known as "The Burial: The Vampyre was highly successful and the most influential vampire work of the early 19th century.
Varney the Vampire was a landmark popular mid- Victorian era gothic horror story by James Malcolm Rymer and Thomas Peckett Prest , which first appeared from to in a series of pamphlets generally referred to as penny dreadfuls because of their inexpensive price and typically gruesome contents.
It has a distinctly suspenseful style, using vivid imagery to describe the horrifying exploits of Varney.
Like Varney before her, the vampire Carmilla is portrayed in a somewhat sympathetic light as the compulsion of her condition is highlighted.
No effort to depict vampires in popular fiction was as influential or as definitive as Bram Stoker 's Dracula The vampiric traits described in Stoker's work merged with and dominated folkloric tradition, eventually evolving into the modern fictional vampire.
Drawing on past works such as The Vampyre and Carmilla , Stoker began to research his new book in the late 19th century, reading works such as The Land Beyond the Forest by Emily Gerard and other books about Transylvania and vampires.
The first chapter of the book was omitted when it was published in , but it was released in as Dracula's Guest.
The latter part of the 20th century saw the rise of multi-volume vampire epics. It also set the trend for seeing vampires as poetic tragic heroes rather than as the more traditional embodiment of evil.
This formula was followed in novelist Anne Rice's highly popular and influential Vampire Chronicles — The 21st century brought more examples of vampire fiction, such as J.
Ward 's Black Dagger Brotherhood series, and other highly popular vampire books which appeal to teenagers and young adults.
Such vampiric paranormal romance novels and allied vampiric chick-lit and vampiric occult detective stories are a remarkably popular and ever-expanding contemporary publishing phenomenon.
Hamilton 's erotic Anita Blake: Vampire Hunter series, and Kim Harrison 's The Hollows series, portray the vampire in a variety of new perspectives, some of them unrelated to the original legends.
Vampires in the Twilight series — by Stephenie Meyer ignore the effects of garlic and crosses and are not harmed by sunlight, although it does reveal their supernatural status.
Considered one of the preeminent figures of the classic horror film, the vampire has proven to be a rich subject for the film and gaming industries.
Dracula is a major character in more films than any other but Sherlock Holmes , and many early films were either based on the novel Dracula or closely derived from it.
These included the German silent film Nosferatu , directed by F. Murnau and featuring the first film portrayal of Dracula—although names and characters were intended to mimic Dracula ' s, Murnau could not obtain permission to do so from Stoker's widow, and had to alter many aspects of the film.
The decade saw several more vampire films, most notably Dracula's Daughter in The legend of the vampire continued through the film industry when Dracula was reincarnated in the pertinent Hammer Horror series of films, starring Christopher Lee as the Count.
The successful Dracula starring Lee was followed by seven sequels. Lee returned as Dracula in all but two of these and became well known in the role.
Several films featured the characterisation of a female, often lesbian, vampire such as Hammer Horror's The Vampire Lovers , based on Carmilla , though the plotlines still revolved around a central evil vampire character.
The Gothic soap opera Dark Shadows , on American television from to and produced by Dan Curtis , featured the vampire character Barnabas Collins , portrayed by Canadian actor Jonathan Frid , which proved partly responsible for making the series one of the most popular of its type, amassing a total of 1, episodes in its nearly five-year run.
The pilot for the later Dan Curtis television series Kolchak: Later films showed more diversity in plotline, with some focusing on the vampire-hunter, such as Blade in the Marvel Comics ' Blade films and the film Buffy the Vampire Slayer.
Still others showed the vampire as protagonist, such as 's The Hunger , 's Interview with the Vampire and its indirect sequel of sorts Queen of the Damned , and the series Moonlight.
The film Bram Stoker's Dracula became the then-highest grossing vampire film ever. This increase of interest in vampiric plotlines led to the vampire being depicted in films such as Underworld and Van Helsing , and the Russian Night Watch and a TV miniseries remake of Salem's Lot , both from The series Blood Ties premiered on Lifetime Television in , featuring a character portrayed as Henry Fitzroy, illegitimate son of Henry VIII of England turned vampire, in modern-day Toronto , with a female former Toronto detective in the starring role.
It featured an unconventional trio of a vampire, a werewolf and a ghost who are sharing a flat in Bristol.
The continuing popularity of the vampire theme has been ascribed to a combination of two factors: The role-playing game Vampire: The Masquerade has been influential upon modern vampire fiction and elements of its terminology, such as embrace and sire , appear in contemporary fiction.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Vampire disambiguation. List of vampires in folklore and mythology.
List of vampire traits in folklore and fiction. Garlic, Bibles, crucifixes, rosaries, holy water, and mirrors have all been seen in various folkloric traditions as means of warding against or identifying vampires.
Vampire folklore by region. From Nosferatu to Interview with the Vampire pp. Archived from the original on 26 January Retrieved 26 January Oxford English Dictionary 2nd ed.
Vampires as Creatures of the Imagination: Hirzel —" in German. Archived from the original on 26 September Archived from the original on 14 June Retrieved 13 June Mify Narodov Mira in Russian.
Archived from the original on 25 February Retrieved 28 February Archived from the original on 12 January The Reader's Digest Book of strange stories, amazing facts: Testamento del paisa in Spanish 7th ed.
An Encyclopaedia of Occultism. Witchcraft and Magic in the Nordic Middle Ages. University of Pennsylvania Press. Die Bestattung in Litauen in der vorgeschichtlichen Zeit in German.
Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society. Mitteilungen der Schlesischen Gesellschaft für Volkskunde in German. Treatise on the Apparitions of Spirits and on Vampires or Revenants: The Element Encyclopedia of Vampires.
Aberglaube und Stafrecht in German. Handwörterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens in German. Wiener Völkerkundliche Mitteilungen in German.
News , archived ; also by Reuters, published under the headline "Researchers find remains that support medieval 'vampire'" in The Australian , 13 March , archived with photo scroll down.
In Search of Dracula. Vikram and The Vampire: Vampires, Einstein and Jewish Folklore". Retrieved 5 December Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association.
Critical and Historical Studies on the Preternatural. The New Annotated Dracula. Retrieved 20 November The encyclopedia of the undead. Visible Ink Press, De servorum Dei beatificatione et sanctorum canonizatione.
Archives Internationals d'Histoire des Sciences. The Evolution of Modern Vampirism". Turismo, Mitologia Chilota, leyendas in Spanish.
Ediciones de la Voz de Chiloe. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. Stories and Studies of Strange Things.
Houghton, Mifflin and Company. Creatures of Philippine Lower Mythology. The Religious System of China. Jiangshi Films in a Transnational Context".
Draculas, Vampires, and Other Undead Forms. Pullout From Southern Malawi". The New York Times. Archived from the original on A Yearly Journal of Folklore Studies The politics of contemporary enchantment.
The politics and aesthetics of Gothic club dancing". Vampires in Their Own Words: An Anthology of Vampire Voices. The Vampires of Folklore and Fiction".
Retrieved 29 June Retrieved 25 December The Mississauga News online. Retrieved 9 November Retrieved 18 March Journal of Abnormal Psychology.
Vampires, Mummies, and Liberals: Bram Stoker and the Politics of Popular Fiction. Gothic Reflections between horror and hope" PDF. Archived from the original PDF on 28 January The Agrarian Myth on Film".
Stockholms spökhus och andra ruskiga ställen in Swedish. Symbolic and Mythological Animals. American College of Heraldry.
Retrieved 1 November Why film vampires always break all the vampire rules". Retrieved 8 August The Vampire in History and Myth.
Icons of horror and the supernatural. Vampires, Burial and Death: Internationalen Balkanologenkongresses in Sofia Cain's curse is supposedly the reason each clan now has its own weakness.
Those who study the mythical vampire origins are called Noddists. According to Noddist mythology there are claims that Cain will return at the end of time to judge his descendants: This event is known as Gehenna, the end of all vampiric races.
Others claim that Gehenna is simply the wakening of the Antediluvians who have returned to feed on the blood of their descendants.
Differing interpretations of the myths divide vampire society. The Sabbat, for example, take the myths quite literally and believe that it is their purpose to defend vampires from the depredations of the ancients.
The Camarilla is more dismissive, either claiming that Cain is nothing more than a myth or metaphor or outright suppressing the myths and their study.
Contentions between the different societies surrounding the origins of vampires and Gehenna are important in-game motivations for the Jyhad that color the character's understanding of their world.
Regardless as to whether or not the myths are true in the context of the game the myth of Cain represents important themes presented in the metaplot such as sins of the father coming back upon his children, the threat of apocalypse, questions of faith, conspiracies, and war of ages.
Golconda is a fabled state of enlightenment that offers vampires a release from their struggle with the Beast.
Different editions have gone into different level of detail as to what Golconda is but all agree that it is an elusive and mysterious state and there is very little information in-game or out as to how to achieve it.
The Masquerade , the Masquerade refers to an organized conspiracy primarily orchestrated by the Camarilla to convince the general public that vampires do not exist.
The Camarilla believes the Masquerade is the cornerstone survival strategy for Kindred and fear that without it the kine would rise up and exterminate all the undead.
Prohibitions against exposing the existence of Kindred existed prior to the 15th century in a set of ancient laws known as the Traditions.
The First Tradition reads:. Doing such shall renounce thy claims of Blood. This stricture was not consistently nor as strictly enforced until the Inquisition of the 15th century required it.
During this period vampires were destroyed in large numbers by vampire hunters which largely prompted the formation of a sect known as the Camarilla whose primary purpose was to promote and enforce the Masquerade as a means of survival.
The Masquerade is largely enforced through self-policing, but it is primarily the job of the Prince in Camarilla controlled cities to enforce it.
Princes may use any means at their disposal to ensure vampire society stays hidden and that those who break the Masquerade are duly punished.
Punishments for breaches have a range but are usually draconian in nature due to the seriousness of the Masquerade. Final Death, often by means of a ritualized "Blood Hunt" by other vampires, is not uncommon.
When breaches do occur, the Camarilla takes great pains to repair them. This could include anything from erasing mortal's memories using supernatural powers to manipulating mortal pawns in order to keep events out of the media.
The Masquerade is one of the main in-game points of contention between the two major factions of vampires in the World of Darkness.
While many vampires see the pragmatism in the Masquerade some do not agree with it. For example, the Sabbat do not uphold the Tradition that justifies the enforcement of the Masquerade but behind closed doors even they take some steps to contain breaches.
Vampires in the World of Darkness have a rich, complex, and diverse secret society with a range of ideologies, goals, and backgrounds.
Sects largely divide along ideological disputes surrounding the distribution of power among vampires, the role of vampires in the human world, and the ancient myths that allegedly explain the origins and purpose of vampires.
An important means of social distinction among vampires in this setting is through age. Younger vampires wanting respect and power must prove themselves to their elders.
While ambition can provide a degree of upward mobility among immortals, oftentimes respect comes to those who can prove they can survive. Ages aren't titles or jobs but rather loose descriptions to describe a vampire's development and the social expectations that come with aging.
Vampires organize and divide themselves politically and ideologically into sects which form governing structure for undead societies.
Laws and norms concerning the place of vampires within the mortal world, feeding, the treatment of vessels, vampiric morality, secrecy, feeding grounds, Gehenna and the distribution of power form the basis of these divisions.
The two major sects are the Camarilla and the Sabbat, but there are other sects as well, such as the Inconnu or the Anarchs.
A sect is something a character may choose in-game, though this decision is often chosen for them by their Sire. Defection to one side or the other is possible, but come with great risk, as much of what motivates the Jyhad are the ideological differences between the Camarilla and the Sabbat.
The Masquerade offers the players the opportunity to play in a politically diverse world in which sects rule over all of vampire society.
While many factions and sub-sects exist in the game, the main focus is the conflict between the Camarilla, the Sabbat and the Anarchs.
A vampire who rejects all associations with any sect and clan is known as "Autarkis". The Laibon, called Kindred of the Ebony Kingdom by Western Kindred, are not so much a sect as a cultural group bound together loosely by a powerful spiritual bond to the land and the people of Africa.
The Kindred of the East , while sharing some superficial similarity to the western Kindred, are actually an entirely different variety of supernatural being.
A clan is the character's vampire family. All characters of a single clan allegedly descended from the clan's Antediluvian founder.
It is widely accepted that there are thirteen clans with thirteen founders, though not all of them are technically Antediluvian. Some clan founders, such as Giovanni or Tremere, usurped their position via Diablerie.
Clans may have a social or political component to them, but a clan is not something a character chooses; it is something they are Embraced into.
Those without a clan are known as Caitiff, and are considered outsiders. The Masquerade introduces the use of 13 clans or major bloodlines in the game.
Each accepted clan can trace its origins to one of 13 elder vampires known as an Antediluvian , for they survived God 's biblical flood. Through the back story of the game, Antediluvians started a war among themselves, called the Jyhad , and use their clansmen to fight this war for them.
Each Clan and Bloodline has a unique set of powers called Disciplines, and their own set of weaknesses, also unique to that particular branch of vampire.
For example, Toreador within the Sabbat style themselves Toreador antitribu. Some rebel or twist the expectations of their clans, while others take a more radical view of their lineage's core ideas.
Some are so different that they are considered different bloodlines manifesting different Disciplines, weaknesses or even a different name.
Lasombra outside the Sabbat are considered antitribu while the Tzimisce outside the Sabbat are referred to as Old Clan. A Sabbat offshoot of the Followers of Setites is known as the Serpents of the Light, and have rejected both the clan founder and his Egyptian origin, in favor of the cultural trappings of Caribbean voodoo.
Bloodlines, on the other hand, either cannot trace their lineage to an Antediluvian founder or are too little in number to be considered a major player in the Jyhad.
Some Bloodlines are considered to be offshoots of existing clans. All bloodlines are treated as exceptionally rare in the game, leaving most of the interactions and story lines centered around the clans.
The Masquerade was ranked 6th in the reader poll of Arcane magazine to determine the 50 most popular roleplaying games of all time.
The UK magazine's editor Paul Pettengale commented: Like all of the Storyteller range, it's not an easy game to get right, and it relies heavily on both the players and the referee putting a lot of effort and imagination into their roles.
With a good group, though, it can be an immensely interesting and thought-provoking game, and one of the most effective horror RPGs around. Despite its tendency to take itself a little seriously, Vampire: The Masquerade has a great deal to offer the more mature and serious gamer.
The game was inducted into the Origins Awards Hall of Fame in The original version was superseded by a second edition in , and a revised edition in The Masquerade game line was discontinued in , at which point it was superseded by Vampire: On March 17, , White Wolf announced the 20th Anniversary Edition, which was published during the Grand Masquerade event in New Orleans on September 15—17, , released to the attendees.
Customers not attending The Grand Masquerade were offered a limited time preorder option. The 20th Anniversary Edition contains revisions of rules and is a compendium of most information provided in supplemental material in the game's earlier life.
Vampir Symbole VideoThe Vampire Diaries: 8x02 - Sybil erases Elena in Damon's memories, Sarah Salvatore dies [HD] American College of Heraldry. The Masquerade game line was discontinued inat which point it was superseded by Vampire: In-game, this accumulation of vitae is called blood pool. Vampire bats were integrated into vampire folklore after they were discovered on the South American mainland in the 16th century. InKing James wrote a dissertation on witchcraft titled Daemonologie in which he wrote the belief that demons could possess both the living and the dead. A Sabbat offshoot of the Followers of Setites is known as the Serpents of the Light, and have rejected both the clan founder and his Egyptian origin, in uefa em pokal of the cultural trappings of Caribbean voodoo. They are truly undead as their hearts do not beat, they do not require food or drink, they do not age, their skin is cold and pale, vampir symbole the only sustenance they require is blood. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. For lack of a poetic description, the Belzeit Tablet was created by a unique Mystery Cult operating in the shadow of the ancient Greek city-states with clear connection to Egypt and the Hebrew tribes on the other side of the Mediterranean Sea. The vampiric traits described in Stoker's work merged with and dominated folkloric tradition, eventually evolving into the Koi Princess Slot Online for Real Money - Rizk Casino fictional vampire.
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The Kemetic ancient Egyptian symbol for life and vitality, often interpreted to mean immortality. Egyptian Gods were depicted holding the Ankh to represent that they were the source of life.
Vampyres wear an Ankh to symbolize that they take in life, be it energy or blood. While the traditional style of Ankh is still popular among Kin, many variants designed specifically for Vampyres have been marketed over the past few decades.
Since there is much evidence in ancient Sumerian records relating to vampire-like beings and entities, much of the research that has been conducted is of interest to us.
The original Sumerian civilization descended from the Ubaid, a proto-Aryan, Pictish culture which itself originated in the region encompassing Carpathia, Transylvania and the White Mountains where the Greek gods originated and which later became known as Scythia.
In the time of Vlad Tepes, the symbol was used as the mark of an Order of Christian Knights during religious wars of the 15th century between Orthodox Christians and invading Muslim Turks in Eastern Europe.
It is believed that Vlad wore this image as a medallion during his lifetime. Dracula himself was inducted into the Order when he was five years old.
The rose and in particular, the blood-red rose has come to be a symbol of love, of life and of blood. The thorns symbolize the pain, risk or threat of injury which can come with these associations.
As a Vampyre symbol, it is a poignant and sentimental one. Black roses too have become associated with Vampyres, symbolizing death, loss, regret, sorrow and mourning.
In many vampire novels and movies, the vampire gives his mortal love a bouquet of black roses. Often the most powerful of the vampire clans will have the black rose on their crest to identify their belonging.
The Rose The rose and in particular, the blood-red rose has come to be a symbol of love, of life and of blood.
Early folk belief in vampires has sometimes been ascribed to the ignorance of the body's process of decomposition after death and how people in pre-industrial societies tried to rationalise this, creating the figure of the vampire to explain the mysteries of death.
Porphyria was linked with legends of vampirism in and received much media exposure, but has since been largely discredited.
The charismatic and sophisticated vampire of modern fiction was born in with the publication of " The Vampyre " by John Polidori ; the story was highly successful and arguably the most influential vampire work of the early 19th century.
The success of this book spawned a distinctive vampire genre , still popular in the 21st century, with books, films , television shows, and video games.
The vampire has since become a dominant figure in the horror genre. The Oxford English Dictionary dates the first appearance of the English word vampire as vampyre in English from , in a travelogue titled Travels of Three English Gentlemen published in The Harleian Miscellany in The Serbian form has parallels in virtually all Slavic languages: The exact etymology is unclear.
Another less widespread theory is that the Slavic languages have borrowed the word from a Turkic term for "witch" e.
The notion of vampirism has existed for millennia. Cultures such as the Mesopotamians , Hebrews , Ancient Greeks , and Romans had tales of demons and spirits which are considered precursors to modern vampires.
Despite the occurrence of vampire-like creatures in these ancient civilizations, the folklore for the entity we know today as the vampire originates almost exclusively from early 18th-century southeastern Europe ,  when verbal traditions of many ethnic groups of the region were recorded and published.
In most cases, vampires are revenants of evil beings, suicide victims, or witches , but they can also be created by a malevolent spirit possessing a corpse or by being bitten by a vampire.
Belief in such legends became so pervasive that in some areas it caused mass hysteria and even public executions of people believed to be vampires.
It is difficult to make a single, definitive description of the folkloric vampire, though there are several elements common to many European legends.
Vampires were usually reported as bloated in appearance, and ruddy, purplish, or dark in colour; these characteristics were often attributed to the recent drinking of blood.
Blood was often seen seeping from the mouth and nose when one was seen in its shroud or coffin and its left eye was often open.
The causes of vampiric generation were many and varied in original folklore. In Slavic and Chinese traditions, any corpse that was jumped over by an animal, particularly a dog or a cat, was feared to become one of the undead.
In Russian folklore , vampires were said to have once been witches or people who had rebelled against the Russian Orthodox Church while they were alive.
Cultural practices often arose that were intended to prevent a recently deceased loved one from turning into an undead revenant. Burying a corpse upside-down was widespread, as was placing earthly objects, such as scythes or sickles ,  near the grave to satisfy any demons entering the body or to appease the dead so that it would not wish to arise from its coffin.
This method resembles the ancient Greek practice of placing an obolus in the corpse's mouth to pay the toll to cross the River Styx in the underworld.
It has been argued that instead, the coin was intended to ward off any evil spirits from entering the body, and this may have influenced later vampire folklore.
This tradition persisted in modern Greek folklore about the vrykolakas , in which a wax cross and piece of pottery with the inscription " Jesus Christ conquers" were placed on the corpse to prevent the body from becoming a vampire.
Other methods commonly practised in Europe included severing the tendons at the knees or placing poppy seeds, millet , or sand on the ground at the grave site of a presumed vampire; this was intended to keep the vampire occupied all night by counting the fallen grains,  indicating an association of vampires with arithmomania.
Similar Chinese narratives state that if a vampire-like being came across a sack of rice , it would have to count every grain; this is a theme encountered in myths from the Indian subcontinent , as well as in South American tales of witches and other sorts of evil or mischievous spirits or beings.
In Albanian folklore, the dhampir is the hybrid child of the karkanxholl a werewolf -like creature with an iron mail shirt or the lugat a water-dwelling ghost or monster.
The dhampir sprung of a karkanxholl has the unique ability to discern the karkanxholl; from this derives the expression the dhampir knows the lugat.
The lugat cannot be seen, he can only be killed by the dhampir, who himself is usually the son of a lugat.
In different regions, animals can be revenants as lugats; also, living people during their sleep. Dhampiraj is also an Albanian surname.
Many rituals were used to identify a vampire. One method of finding a vampire's grave involved leading a virgin boy through a graveyard or church grounds on a virgin stallion—the horse would supposedly balk at the grave in question.
Corpses thought to be vampires were generally described as having a healthier appearance than expected, plump and showing little or no signs of decomposition.
Folkloric vampires could also make their presence felt by engaging in minor poltergeist -like activity, such as hurling stones on roofs or moving household objects,  and pressing on people in their sleep.
Apotropaics —items able to ward off revenants—are common in vampire folklore. Garlic is a common example,  a branch of wild rose and hawthorn plant are said to harm vampires, and in Europe, sprinkling mustard seeds on the roof of a house was said to keep them away.
Vampires are said to be unable to walk on consecrated ground , such as that of churches or temples, or cross running water.
Although not traditionally regarded as an apotropaic, mirrors have been used to ward off vampires when placed, facing outwards, on a door in some cultures, vampires do not have a reflection and sometimes do not cast a shadow, perhaps as a manifestation of the vampire's lack of a soul.
Some traditions also hold that a vampire cannot enter a house unless invited by the owner; after the first invitation they can come and go as they please.
Methods of destroying suspected vampires varied, with staking the most commonly cited method, particularly in southern Slavic cultures.
Piercing the skin of the chest was a way of "deflating" the bloated vampire. This is similar to a practice of " anti-vampire burial ": Decapitation was the preferred method in German and western Slavic areas, with the head buried between the feet, behind the buttocks or away from the body.
The vampire's head, body, or clothes could also be spiked and pinned to the earth to prevent rising. Romani people drove steel or iron needles into a corpse's heart and placed bits of steel in the mouth, over the eyes, ears and between the fingers at the time of burial.
They also placed hawthorn in the corpse's sock or drove a hawthorn stake through the legs. In a 16th-century burial near Venice , a brick forced into the mouth of a female corpse has been interpreted as a vampire-slaying ritual by the archaeologists who discovered it in Further measures included pouring boiling water over the grave or complete incineration of the body.
In the Balkans, a vampire could also be killed by being shot or drowned, by repeating the funeral service, by sprinkling holy water on the body, or by exorcism.
In Romania, garlic could be placed in the mouth, and as recently as the 19th century, the precaution of shooting a bullet through the coffin was taken.
For resistant cases, the body was dismembered and the pieces burned, mixed with water, and administered to family members as a cure.
In Saxon regions of Germany, a lemon was placed in the mouth of suspected vampires. Tales of supernatural beings consuming the blood or flesh of the living have been found in nearly every culture around the world for many centuries.
Blood drinking and similar activities were attributed to demons or spirits who would eat flesh and drink blood; even the devil was considered synonymous with the vampire.
Almost every nation has associated blood drinking with some kind of revenant or demon, or in some cases a deity.
The Persians were one of the first civilisations to have tales of blood-drinking demons: Lilitu was considered a demon and was often depicted as subsisting on the blood of babies,  and estries , female shape-changing, blood-drinking demons, were said to roam the night among the population, seeking victims.
According to Sefer Hasidim , estries were creatures created in the twilight hours before God rested.
An injured estrie could be healed by eating bread and salt given her by her attacker. Greco-Roman mythology described the Empusae ,  the Lamia ,  and the striges.
Over time the first two terms became general words to describe witches and demons respectively. Empusa was the daughter of the goddess Hecate and was described as a demonic, bronze -footed creature.
She feasted on blood by transforming into a young woman and seduced men as they slept before drinking their blood. They were described as having the bodies of crows or birds in general, and were later incorporated into Roman mythology as strix , a kind of nocturnal bird that fed on human flesh and blood.
Many myths surrounding vampires originated during the medieval period. The 12th-century English historians and chroniclers Walter Map and William of Newburgh recorded accounts of revenants,   though records in English legends of vampiric beings after this date are scant.
He linked this event to the lack of a shmirah guarding after death as the corpse could be a vessel for evil spirits. Vampires proper originate in folklore widely reported from Eastern Europe in the late 17th and 18th centuries.
These tales formed the basis of the vampire legend that later entered Germany and England, where they were subsequently embellished and popularized.
One of the earliest recordings of vampire activity came from the region of Istria in modern Croatia , in Local villagers claimed he returned from the dead and began drinking blood from the people and sexually harassing his widow.
The village leader ordered a stake to be driven through his heart, but when the method failed to kill him, he was subsequently beheaded with better results.
During the 18th century, there was a frenzy of vampire sightings in Eastern Europe, with frequent stakings and grave diggings to identify and kill the potential revenants.
Even government officials engaged in the hunting and staking of vampires. Blagojevich was reported to have died at the age of 62, but allegedly returned after his death asking his son for food.
When the son refused, he was found dead the following day. Blagojevich supposedly returned and attacked some neighbours who died from loss of blood.
The two incidents were well-documented. Government officials examined the bodies, wrote case reports, and published books throughout Europe.
The problem was exacerbated by rural epidemics of so-claimed vampire attacks, undoubtedly caused by the higher amount of superstition that was present in village communities, with locals digging up bodies and in some cases, staking them.
In , King James wrote a dissertation on witchcraft titled Daemonologie in which he wrote the belief that demons could possess both the living and the dead.
Within his classification of demons , he explained the concept through the notion that incubi and succubae could possess the corpse of the deceased and walk the earth.
As a devil borrows a dead body, it would seem so visibly and naturally to any man who converses with them and that any substance within the body would remain intolerably cold to others which they abuse.
In the Greek librarian of the Vatican, Leo Allatius , produced the first methodological description of the Balkan beliefs in vampires Greek: From , Philippe Rohr devotes an essay to the dead who chew their shrouds in their graves, a subject resumed by Otto in , and then by Michael Ranft in The subject was based on the observation that when digging up graves, it was discovered that some corpses had at some point either devoured the interior fabric of their coffin or their own limbs.
Theologians and clergymen also address the topic. Some theological disputes arose. The non-decay of vampires' bodies could recall the incorruption of the bodies of the saints of the Catholic Church.
A paragraph on vampires was included in the second edition of De servorum Dei beatificatione et sanctorum canonizatione , On the beatification of the servants of God and on canonization of the blessed, written by Prospero Lambertini Pope Benedict XIV.
In other words, vampires did not exist. Dom Augustine Calmet , a French theologian and scholar, published a comprehensive treatise in titled Treatise on the Apparitions of Spirits and on Vampires or Revenants which investigated the existence of vampires, demons, and spectres.
Calmet conducted extensive research and amassed judicial reports of vampiric incidents and extensively researched theological and mythological accounts as well, using the scientific method in his analysis to come up with methods for determining the validity for cases of this nature.
As he stated in his treatise: These revenants are called by the name of oupires or vampires, that is to say, leeches ; and such particulars are related of them, so singular, so detailed, and invested with such probable circumstances and such judicial information, that one can hardly refuse to credit the belief which is held in those countries, that these revenants come out of their tombs and produce those effects which are proclaimed of them.
Calmet had numerous readers, including both a critical Voltaire and numerous supportive demonologists who interpreted the treatise as claiming that vampires existed.
These vampires were corpses, who went out of their graves at night to suck the blood of the living, either at their throats or stomachs, after which they returned to their cemeteries.
The persons so sucked waned, grew pale, and fell into consumption ; while the sucking corpses grew fat, got rosy, and enjoyed an excellent appetite.
The controversy in Austria only ceased when Empress Maria Theresa of Austria sent her personal physician, Gerard van Swieten , to investigate the claims of vampiric entities.
He concluded that vampires did not exist and the Empress passed laws prohibiting the opening of graves and desecration of bodies, sounding the end of the vampire epidemics.
Other European countries followed suit. Despite this condemnation, the vampire lived on in artistic works and in local folklore.
Classified as vampires, all share the thirst for blood. Various regions of Africa have folktales featuring beings with vampiric abilities: The Loogaroo is an example of how a vampire belief can result from a combination of beliefs, here a mixture of French and African Vodu or voodoo.
The term Loogaroo possibly comes from the French loup-garou meaning "werewolf" and is common in the culture of Mauritius. During the late 18th and 19th centuries the belief in vampires was widespread in parts of New England , particularly in Rhode Island and eastern Connecticut.
There are many documented cases of families disinterring loved ones and removing their hearts in the belief that the deceased was a vampire who was responsible for sickness and death in the family, although the term "vampire" was never used to describe the dead.
The deadly disease tuberculosis , or "consumption" as it was known at the time, was believed to be caused by nightly visitations on the part of a dead family member who had died of consumption themselves.
Her father, assisted by the family physician, removed her from her tomb two months after her death, cut out her heart and burned it to ashes.
Vampires have appeared in Japanese cinema since the late s; the folklore behind it is western in origin. There are two main vampire-like creatures in the Philippines: The mandurugo is a variety of the aswang that takes the form of an attractive girl by day, and develops wings and a long, hollow, thread-like tongue by night.
The tongue is used to suck up blood from a sleeping victim. They use an elongated proboscis-like tongue to suck fetuses from these pregnant women.
They also prefer to eat entrails specifically the heart and the liver and the phlegm of sick people. The Malaysian Penanggalan is a woman who obtained her beauty through the active use of black magic or other unnatural means, and is most commonly described in local folklore to be dark or demonic in nature.
She is able to detach her fanged head which flies around in the night looking for blood, typically from pregnant women.
She appeared as an attractive woman with long black hair that covered a hole in the back of her neck, with which she sucked the blood of children.
Filling the hole with her hair would drive her off. Corpses had their mouths filled with glass beads, eggs under each armpit, and needles in their palms to prevent them from becoming langsuir.
This description would also fit the Sundel Bolongs. Films like Encounters of the Spooky Kind and Mr. Vampire were released during the jiangshi cinematic boom of the s and s.
In modern fiction, the vampire tends to be depicted as a suave, charismatic villain. Vampire hunting societies still exist, but they are largely formed for social reasons.
In early local press spread rumours that a vampire haunted Highgate Cemetery in London. Amateur vampire hunters flocked in large numbers to the cemetery.
Several books have been written about the case, notably by Sean Manchester, a local man who was among the first to suggest the existence of the " Highgate Vampire " and who later claimed to have exorcised and destroyed a whole nest of vampires in the area.
Local police stated that no such crime had been reported and that the case appears to be an urban legend. In , a physics professor at the University of Central Florida wrote a paper arguing that it is mathematically impossible for vampires to exist, based on geometric progression.
According to the paper, if the first vampire had appeared on 1 January , and it fed once a month which is less often than what is depicted in films and folklore , and every victim turned into a vampire, then within two and a half years the entire human population of the time would have become vampires.
In one of the more notable cases of vampiric entities in the modern age, the chupacabra "goat-sucker" of Puerto Rico and Mexico is said to be a creature that feeds upon the flesh or drinks the blood of domesticated animals , leading some to consider it a kind of vampire.
The "chupacabra hysteria" was frequently associated with deep economic and political crises, particularly during the mids. In Europe, where much of the vampire folklore originates, the vampire is usually considered a fictitious being; many communities may have embraced the revenant for economic purposes.
In some cases, especially in small localities, beliefs are still rampant and sightings or claims of vampire attacks occur frequently.
In Romania during February , several relatives of Toma Petre feared that he had become a vampire. They dug up his corpse, tore out his heart, burned it, and mixed the ashes with water in order to drink it.
Vampirism and the vampire lifestyle also represent a relevant part of modern day's occultist movements. An alternative collective noun is a "house" of vampires.
Commentators have offered many theories for the origins of vampire beliefs and related mass hysteria. Everything ranging from premature burial to the early ignorance of the body's decomposition cycle after death has been cited as the cause for the belief in vampires.
Paul Barber in his book Vampires, Burial and Death has described that belief in vampires resulted from people of pre-industrial societies attempting to explain the natural, but to them inexplicable, process of death and decomposition.
People sometimes suspected vampirism when a cadaver did not look as they thought a normal corpse should when disinterred. Rates of decomposition vary depending on temperature and soil composition, and many of the signs are little known.
This has led vampire hunters to mistakenly conclude that a dead body had not decomposed at all or, ironically, to interpret signs of decomposition as signs of continued life.
Corpses swell as gases from decomposition accumulate in the torso and the increased pressure forces blood to ooze from the nose and mouth.
This causes the body to look "plump", "well-fed", and "ruddy"—changes that are all the more striking if the person was pale or thin in life.
In the Arnold Paole case , an old woman's exhumed corpse was judged by her neighbours to look more plump and healthy than she had ever looked in life.
Darkening of the skin is also caused by decomposition. This could produce a groan-like sound when the gases moved past the vocal cords, or a sound reminiscent of flatulence when they passed through the anus.
The official reporting on the Petar Blagojevich case speaks of "other wild signs which I pass by out of high respect".
After death, the skin and gums lose fluids and contract, exposing the roots of the hair, nails, and teeth, even teeth that were concealed in the jaw.
This can produce the illusion that the hair, nails, and teeth have grown. At a certain stage, the nails fall off and the skin peels away, as reported in the Blagojevich case—the dermis and nail beds emerging underneath were interpreted as "new skin" and "new nails".
It has also been hypothesized that vampire legends were influenced by individuals being buried alive because of shortcomings in the medical knowledge of the time.
In some cases in which people reported sounds emanating from a specific coffin, it was later dug up and fingernail marks were discovered on the inside from the victim trying to escape.
In other cases the person would hit their heads, noses or faces and it would appear that they had been "feeding". An alternate explanation for noise is the bubbling of escaping gases from natural decomposition of bodies.
Folkloric vampirism has been associated with clusters of deaths from unidentifiable or mysterious illnesses, usually within the same family or the same small community.
As with the pneumonic form of bubonic plague , it was associated with breakdown of lung tissue which would cause blood to appear at the lips.
In biochemist David Dolphin proposed a link between the rare blood disorder porphyria and vampire folklore.
Noting that the condition is treated by intravenous haem , he suggested that the consumption of large amounts of blood may result in haem being transported somehow across the stomach wall and into the bloodstream.
Thus vampires were merely sufferers of porphyria seeking to replace haem and alleviate their symptoms. The theory has been rebuffed medically as suggestions that porphyria sufferers crave the haem in human blood, or that the consumption of blood might ease the symptoms of porphyria, are based on a misunderstanding of the disease.
Furthermore, Dolphin was noted to have confused fictional bloodsucking vampires with those of folklore, many of whom were not noted to drink blood.
In any case, Dolphin did not go on to publish his work more widely. Rabies has been linked with vampire folklore. The susceptibility to garlic and light could be due to hypersensitivity, which is a symptom of rabies.
The disease can also affect portions of the brain that could lead to disturbance of normal sleep patterns thus becoming nocturnal and hypersexuality.
Legend once said a man was not rabid if he could look at his own reflection an allusion to the legend that vampires have no reflection.
Wolves and bats , which are often associated with vampires, can be carriers of rabies. The disease can also lead to a drive to bite others and to a bloody frothing at the mouth.
In his treatise On the Nightmare , Welsh psychoanalyst Ernest Jones asserted that vampires are symbolic of several unconscious drives and defence mechanisms.
Emotions such as love, guilt, and hate fuel the idea of the return of the dead to the grave. Desiring a reunion with loved ones, mourners may project the idea that the recently dead must in return yearn the same.
From this arises the belief that folkloric vampires and revenants visit relatives, particularly their spouses, first. In cases where there was unconscious guilt associated with the relationship, the wish for reunion may be subverted by anxiety.
This may lead to repression , which Sigmund Freud had linked with the development of morbid dread. The sexual aspect may or may not be present.
People identify with immortal vampires because, by so doing, they overcome, or at least temporarily escape from, their fear of dying.
The innate sexuality of bloodsucking can be seen in its intrinsic connection with cannibalism and folkloric one with incubus -like behaviour. Many legends report various beings draining other fluids from victims, an unconscious association with semen being obvious.